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Quality Control: What It Is, How It Works

What is Quality Control (QC)?

Quality control (QC) is an integral process within a business aimed at upholding or enhancing product quality. It requires the setup of an environment where both management and employees are dedicated to achieving excellence. This involves thorough personnel training, setting quality benchmarks, and conducting product tests to identify statistically significant variations.

An integral component of quality control involves implementing well-defined controls. These controls serve to standardise production processes and responses to quality concerns. By delineating specific production tasks for each personnel role, the likelihood of errors is minimised, ensuring that employees are assigned tasks aligning with their training and expertise.

Understanding Quality Control (QC)

Quality control encompasses testing units to ascertain their compliance with final product specifications. Its primary objective is to identify any necessary corrective measures within the manufacturing process. Effective quality control plays a necessary role in enabling companies to satisfy consumer expectations for superior products.

The Importance of Quality Control

Developing a product incurs significant costs, time, and potential safety risks without proper controls. Moreover, if a company releases flawed products to the market, it may face liability for resulting injuries or issues. Quality control inspectors should identify and rectify defects or safety concerns in products.

How Quality Control is Done

Quality testing is conducted at every stage of a manufacturing or business operation. This process commonly begins with the examination of raw materials, followed by the extraction of samples from the production line and culminating in the evaluation of the final product.

Testing throughout these stages aids in identifying the source of production issues and determining necessary corrective actions to prevent their recurrence.

In non-manufacturing businesses, quality testing encompasses several practices such as customer service evaluations, administering questionnaires and surveys, conducting inspections, or performing audits. Businesses employ diverse methodologies to ensure that their end products or services not only satisfy customer requirements but also comply with safety and legal standards.

Applications of Quality Control Across Industries

Quality control practices vary across different industries. For instance, in food and drug manufacturing, ensuring consumer safety involves rigorous chemical and microbiological testing of production line samples to prevent any potential harm to consumers.

Aircraft manufacturing prioritises meticulous quality control and assurance. Manufacturers must document, track, inspect, and repeatedly verify every component and phase of construction to establish comprehensive evidence of adherence to stringent standards.

Automobile manufacturing centres its quality control on ensuring that parts precisely meet specified standards and tolerances. This includes verifying the smooth, efficient, safe, and intended operation of engines, drive trains, and other mechanical components.

In the realm of electronics, quality testing methods often encompass employing specialised metres to gauge electricity flow and conducting stress tests to ensure product durability and reliability.

Quality Control vs. Quality Assurance

Quality control and quality assurance are often considered interchangeable, yet they have distinct aspects. Quality control primarily emphasises meeting specific quality criteria, ensuring, for instance, that a part aligns with set specifications. Quality assurance is a comprehensive set of actions and processes aimed at validating the fulfilment of quality requirements.

For professionals in the field, understanding this difference implies a potential career transition from a focus on quality control to a broader role in quality assurance. Quality control operates within the framework of quality assurance, which comprises programs and departments dedicated to ensuring that products adhere to all quality benchmarks and safety standards. It serves as a means to assure upper-level management, customers, and regulatory bodies of compliance with these standards.

Quality Control Methods

Quality control uses several methods to communicate and monitor inspections and issues. For example, a quality control chart serves as a visual representation indicating whether sampled products or processes adhere to their intended specifications. Also, it illustrates the extent to which they deviate from these specifications when they fall short.

A univariate chart examines a singular product attribute, whereas a multivariate chart assesses variations across multiple product attributes. This tracking of variances enables businesses to ascertain the number of defects per production unit and identify the specific types of occurring defects.

Here are several examples of these methods in practice.

X-Bar Chart

Products chosen at random undergo testing for specific attributes tracked by the chart. An X-bar chart, a prevalent quality control tool, depicts the variance of the tested attribute on the y-axis against the samples tested on the x-axis. By scrutinising the variance pattern in this chart, you can ascertain whether defects arise randomly or follow a systematic pattern.

Taguchi Method

The Taguchi Method of quality control is an approach that highlights the significance of research and development, product design, and product development in minimising product defects and failures. Emphasising design over the manufacturing process, it aims to preemptively eliminate production variances before they manifest, prioritising proactive quality control measures.

100% Inspection Method

The 100% inspection method is a comprehensive quality control process that entails meticulously examining and evaluating all components of a product. Its primary purpose is to identify and eliminate any flaws present in the products. This approach finds frequent application in assessing precious metals.Implementing the 100% inspection method needs gathering manufacturing process data and using software for inventory analysis.

However, employing this method poses challenges due to its costliness and potential to disrupt or render products non-functional. For instance, scrutinising every individual item, such as organic strawberries, can risk damaging the produce, making it unsuitable for sale.

Quality Control Careers

A career in quality control presents various opportunities across industries.

Quality Analyst

Quality Analysts are responsible for analysing data, assessing processes, and identifying areas for improvement within the production cycle. They utilise statistical tools, quality metrics, and data analysis techniques to evaluate trends, measure performance, and recommend corrective actions. Their analyses guide decision-making processes to enhance overall quality and efficiency.

Quality Control Inspector

Quality Control Inspectors play a fundamental role in examining products, components, or materials to ensure they meet specified quality standards and regulatory requirements. They conduct thorough inspections, perform tests, and document findings to identify defects or deviations from quality benchmarks. Inspectors often work on the production floor, verifying the quality of products at different stages of manufacturing.

Quality Engineer

Quality Engineers contribute to the design, development, and implementation of quality control methodologies within manufacturing or production processes. They collaborate with cross-functional teams to establish quality protocols, create testing procedures, and ensure that products meet defined quality standards. They also troubleshoot issues, conduct root cause analysis, and develop strategies for continuous improvement.

Quality Manager

Quality Managers oversee the entire quality control process within an organisation. They formulate quality policies, set objectives, and ensure compliance with industry regulations and standards.

Quality Managers supervise teams of inspectors, analysts, and engineers, providing leadership, guidance, and support to ensure effective implementation of quality control measures.


Implementing quality control measures within a business is important in guaranteeing both product excellence and the overall success of the company. The quality control framework shapes employees’ perceptions of the workplace, fostering a strong sense of product ownership and commitment to the company’s success.

There are diverse methods for conducting quality control, ranging from training staff to developing data-driven tools for product testing and standard establishment. These methods not only ensure a secure working environment but also result in safe, customer-centric products. Moreover, a career in quality control is immensely gratifying for individuals inclined towards investigating issues and enhancing outcomes.


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